History of the Kazakh ethnic group is unique because ideologist of its formation was a man, who Shokan Valihanov called a "philosopher of Kazakh nogai - nomadic people". It was the poet - narrator -bard Asan Kaigy, whose memory is preserved in the Kazakh epic legends, proverbs, stable statement s and verse-songs, attributed to him.
Works of Asan-Kaigy were explored by scientists and writers Sh. Ualikhanov, G.P. Potanin, M.J. Kopeyev, S.Seifullin, M.Auezov, S.Akatay, K.A. Medeuova and other researchers. Mukhtar Magauin, Kazakh writer, eloquently reveals his figure in the eyes of the people: "We think that Asana Kaigy had a great work of Jer-Uiyk (the Promised Land), which was born by a dream of the people happiness. It is difficult to say whether it was in the form of tolgau or zhyr or resembled to "Utopia" by Thomas More or "Sun City" by Campanella. Extant legends are probably the remnants of his philosophical work, turned into a legend."
Hasan Thabit-uly, known as Asan-Kaigy (Asan Sad), supposedly born between the 1361-1370 on the Volga River. He was one of the most influential dignitaries of Ulugh Mohammed, Khan of Golden Horde, and when Ulugh Muhammad was expelled from the Horde in the 20s of XV century, Asan Kaigy remained faithful to his sovereign. In succeeding years, he was an adviser of Ulugh Mohammed, who became khan of Kazan; he returned to the Desht-i Qipchaq only after the death of his sovereign at the invitation of Abulhair, Khan of nomadic Uzbeks.
He takes the side of the opposition - sultans Djanibek and Kerey during the period of political struggle in 1450s in the Abulhair’s district. In 1456 these rebellious sultans established Kazakh horde in the Chu River valley, and part of the people that separated from the nomadic Uzbeks got name – Kazakh, what in Turkic means - free, runaway.
We can say that Asan Kaigy became a main ideologist of the new Khanate. During the era of the formation and development of the Kazakh nation, zhyraus were advisers and soldiers, encouraging compatriots. As mentors and sages, zhiraus (poets and singers – improvisers) instructed and inspired people and khans. Asan Kaigy was held in respect, because he proved to be a spokesman of people’s hopes at the court of Janibek Khan. He suggested to the Khan to leave his personal interests and ambitions aside, and put at the forefront "duties of the Khan in front of the people". He could safely say such words to Janibek Khan: "Not thinking about the future of the Kazakh people, you celebrate a temporary success."
Asan Kaigy is author of many words-exhortations, philosophical songs, recitatives (terme). In the extant passages reflected the historical events of that distant era and his attitude to these events.
And Khan listened to the exhortations of the great zhyrau! Kazakh legend "Why Asan Kaigy did not came at the invitation of the Khan" eloquently tells that:
Once, Khan Az Janibek had three celebrations in a row. The first one was organized on the occasion of the completion of Astrakhan city. The second one he organized after he poured into the lake water a sweet sugar solution, then gave to drink to a swan, and after allowed black kite attack swan and kill it. The third one Az Janibek gave in honor of the Tastemir marriage, son of Mygaly bai, to the sister of Khan – beautiful Kanybet. Asan Kaigy did not attend any of them. Then Khan, for the fourth time, sent a special messenger to the zhyrau. Asan Kaigy finally appeared. Az Janibek, seeing an elderly sage, asked him: "I have invited you to my celebrations three times already, but you did not come. Why?" Asan Kaigy replied:
…Six laden camels,
Six years I searched for peace.
Saw countries, people
But have not seen such
Where on the tops is snow
In clear rivers - fish,
Where over people, like a lump,
Stand you, Khan Janibek!
You poured sugar into the water
And fed the swans,
And swan, reflecting,
Into clear waters swam.
Black kite was a bird grief
Swan was bird elite
You allowed to the kite
Crush swan’s wings!
Evil kite knocked swan down,
Began to tear it up and eat...
What is bitterer in this world
Than white bird death?
You marble equal to the sun,
To whitewash overthrew.
And you will get
Such kite for you,
You're by all the signs
Is like Kite,
I am aggrieved by that,
Did not come on your call!
Khan Az Janibek was frightened by these words of the prophetic poet and said: "Enough, enough! But I had another one on the occasion of marriage between my sister and Tastemir, son of Mygaly, and I invited you. Why did not you come?" Then Asan Kaigy said:
…Do not be outraged,
You shapely legs of Akhal-Teke
Dressed in wrought gold,
And the nails are silver in his horseshoes,
When there are silk ropes
Is a simple lasso used?
Your name is Khan Az Janibek,
You seem to have forgotten,
You promised sister to Amet, Aisyla’s son,
And now you give her to son of bai Mygaly,
Who graze your bulls
His son - unworthy Tastemir
You give your sister to?
It is true that Az Janibek was going to give his sister to Amet, son of Aisyla. Now giving her Tastemir, he violated not only his word, but also ancient tradition. Words of the old poet were not only correct but also condemning the Khan’s act. Khan Az Janibek thought about it and then reversed his decision, and Amet got the girl.
Asan had high expectations from the newly created Khanate, he dreamed about happy future for the people, dreamed to transform native steppe to the territory of abundance and prosperity, to the abode of virtue and harmony, where everyone, poor and rich, will be happy. He became sad because he saw how the realities of life do not correspond with his ideals.
Riding a camel Zhelmaya, Asan Kaigy visited many countries in search of the Promised Land - Jer - uiyk - Zhideli Baisyn - where the birds make their nests on the backs of sheep.
"Asan Kaigy traveled for 17 years, and when he returned to Az Zhanibek, he took him and people somewhere, where no nation could force them out or take away their land" - says one of the Kazakh legends.