Koskuduk, on Mangyshlak, is undoubtedly one of the most interesting discoveries of domestic archeology in the recent decades. Actually, in scientific life, Koskuduk is not one here. Here are several of them, non contemporaneous, designated by Roman numerals I, II, III.
But we will not fill our heads with archaeological nuances. Especially because, we are talking about such remote times, when any demographic pause may not depend on the actual flaw, but on the loss and lack of information. Especially, Koskuduk I and II are interconnected by some kind of "snake" cult.
In one case we are talking about a large snake altar on the rock surface, where remained engraved images of two divine serpents (size of one is 3, 5 m) and holes to collect the sacrificial blood. And in another case, we have a small home altar with a pair of the same sacred reptiles.
…The ancient inhabitants of Koskuduk and as a neighboring Aktau lived in dormitories. They were classic Aeneolithic dormitories, about 150 m square meters, where lived a large family, 30 - 40 people. About how people lived at such communal density of residents, we can only guess. But it is unlikely that there were boiling such passions like in modern reality shows. People in those epochs respected and appreciated each other too much, to go down this road.
The main job of Koskuduk inhabitants was fishing and hunting during the initial period of the settlement existence. Later, here finally appeared domesticated on the other side of the Caspian sea sheep. Interestingly, the age of the settlement and the time of sheep occurrence here can be rightly considered as the earliest manifestations on the territory of modern Kazakhstan!
Walls of the houses, up until now, were made from the famous Mangyshlak shell rock, and the upper part was covered with a cane roof. One side of large house in Koskuduk I is attached to the cliff, which means that they had a rational mind. Why preoccupy too much if nature itself has taken care for you? But at the same place was found confirmation of the opposite - magical perception of the world that filled their mythological thinking.
Burial of the crouched men was found near, archaeologists suspected that he was sacrificed at the foundation of the big house. The ancients believed that this ritual repeats the archaic myth of the Creation - house on the bones of the will stand forever. Somehow, Rigveda with giant Purusha crossed my mind, which was sacrificed for the sake of creation of the world on his body. And I also remembered architectural mandalas, which are sacred construction scheme of Hindu temples that show captive chaos as a giant squeezed into square. Koskuduk is older than Rigveda, although, their inhabitants might have had a connection with one root - sacred book of the Indo-Aryans.
…My guide in Koskuduk was Andrey Astafev, Aktau archaeologist, the authors of this discovery. Astafev himself was a discovery for me. Such experts of the region, as he is, have every right to be considered as sights of their land; I can say that not all regions of Kazakhstan can boast of their presence. He is mature enough to know a lot and understand many things, but still young, not to become callous among authorities; Astafev has an excellent archaeological flair and also able to see in his dusty discipline scope for creativity. His reconstruction of the Stone Age tools production and their using techniques are unique phenomenon for our science! But this is a topic for another article...